What is immunotherapy?

Researchers have found that some cancer cells can go undetected by your immune system. This can allow the cancer to grow and spread. Cancer immunotherapy can help to reactivate the immune system so that it can recognize cancer in the body. It is also important to know that each person can respond differently to such treatment. You should have a discussion with your doctor if you are considering immunotherapy treatment.

What is an antibody?

An antibody is a protein made by the immune system during an immune response that attaches to specific cells and can affect the immune system's ability to target and kill cells.

What is a duct?

In medicine, a duct is a tube or vessel of the body through which fluids pass.

What is ER (estrogen receptor)?

ER (estrogen receptor) is a protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow.

What is a gland?

A gland is an organ that makes 1 or more substances, such as breast milk.

What is HER2?

HER2 is a protein involved in normal cell growth. HER2 may be made in larger than normal amounts by some types of cancer cells, including breast and bladder. This may cause cancer cells to grow more quickly and spread to other parts of the body. Also called c-erbB-2, HER2/neu, human EGF receptor 2, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

What is the immune system?

The immune system is a collection of organs, special cells, and substances that help protect you from infections and other diseases.

What is an infusion?

An infusion is a method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called intravenous infusion.

What is locally advanced cancer?

Locally advanced cancer is cancer that has spread from where it started to nearby tissues or lymph nodes.

What is a lymph node?

A lymph node is a part of the body's immune system that helps fight disease, like cancer, in the body.

What does median mean?

Median is a statistics term. The middle value, or number, in a set of measurements, which have been put in order from lowest to highest.

What is metastatic?

Metastatic is the spread of cancer from where it originated to other places in the body.

What is PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1)?

PD-L1 is a protein found on the surface of many cells, including cancer cells, that can affect the immune system’s ability to target and attack cells.

What is PR (progesterone receptor)?

PR (progesterone receptor) is a protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone progesterone will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow.

What is a protein?

A protein is a molecule that is the building block of the cells in the body. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly.

What is a receptor?

A receptor is a molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific effect in the cell.

What is TNBC (triple-negative breast cancer)?

TNBC describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2/neu-negative breast cancer.

What does unresectable mean?

Unresectable means unable to be removed with surgery.

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